The ideal integrating sphere, a theoretical construction which allows the explanation of the sphere's basic principle of operation, is characterised by the following properties:
• Its entrance and exit ports are infinitesimally small.
• All objects inside the sphere, light sources and baffles, are also infinitesimally small and their influence on optical radiation after its first reflection at the sphere's inner surface can be neglected.
• Its inner surface is a perfectly homogenous Lambertian reflector, and its reflectance ρ is independent from wavelength. For a more detailed discussion of reflective materials largely fulfilling these properties, see § II.5.c. and III.1.a.
During the following considerations, the symbol index describes the order of reflection. So, E0 denotes the irradiance caused directly by the light source, whereas E1, E2, ... denote the irradiance caused by light from the source after one, two, ... reflections. Total irradiance is then given by the infinite sum
Etotal = E0 + E1 + E2 + ...
For convenience, the index "e", denoting radiometric quantities, is omitted. However, if the reflectance ρ of the sphere's coating material is independent from wavelength, the derived relations also hold true for photometric quantities, which would be denoted by the index "v".
Fig.V.2. Geometry of an ideal integrating sphere of radius R.
Lets consider an ideal integrating sphere of radius R, consisting of a hollow perfect Lambertian reflector with infinitesimally small entrance and exit ports. An inhomogeneous radiation source produces direct irradiance levels E0 (the term "direct irradiance" refers to the fact that E0 is directly caused by the source without any reflections) which depend on the respective location at the sphere's inner surface (Fig.V.2). As a first step, we want to calculate the irradiance E1 of the sphere's inner surface, produced by the radiance L1 after the first reflection. Due to the Lambertian reflection property of the sphere's material, the radiation reflected by a certain area element dA is characterised by a constant directional radiance distribution L. According to
Equ. II.7 in paragraph II.5.c, the area element's exitance M1 is related to the reflected radiance L1 by
M1 = L1π
and is further related to the element's direct irradiance E0 by
M1 = ρ E0
whereby ρ denotes the total reflectance of the sphere's inner surface.
As a consequence,
Although L does not depend on the direction relative to the surface element dA, it still depends on the location at the sphere's inside, which is a consequence of the generally irregular direct illumination by the light source.If we want to calculate the radiant power emitted by the area element dA and impinging upon another area element dA', we have to calculate the solid angle of dA', as seen from dA (Fig.V.2). As dA' is tilted by an angle ε relative to the line of sight between the two area elements, dA' occupies the solid angle dΩ', as seens from dA: